Migraine afflicts one in six people worldwide and results in significant pain, disability, and reductions in quality of life. Chronic migraine affects.
WEAK OPIOIDSA collection of medications that include codeine, hydrocodone, and tramadol is recommended as the second tier of the WHO analgesic ladder..
Acetaminophen and Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory DrugsAcetaminophen (APAP) and NSAIDs are discussed earlier in this chapter. They are important step 1 analgesics.
The general tendency is to separate malignant from nonmalignant pain. This distinction, however, is not made based on anatomic or physiologic differences..
Perioperative regional anesthetic techniques may allow forsuperior postoperative pain control compared with the use of systemic opioids and adjuvant pain.
Parenteral administration of opioid analgesics via intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) is common in the immediate postoperative setting..
Patient satisfaction is an integral part of pay-for-performance programs, and pain management is increasingly recognized as an important factor in patient.
ETIOLOGYApproximately one fourth of head and neck cancers occur in patients older than 70 years. Environmental exposure to carcinogens, most notably tobacco.